Prediction of Soil Macronutrients Using Machine Learning Algorithm
In this research work, machine learning algorithms were applied to find the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables for soil data analysis. The independent variables include moisture, temperature, soil pH, Cation Exchange Capacity(CEC) whereas, the dependent variables include Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (NPK). This research concludes relationships between Phosphorus, Potassium, soil pH and CEC; Nitrogen and soil moisture and temperature using machine learning(ML) algorithms so as to deduce NPK content of soil. A comparative analysis with obtained results from each ML method is also presented. Machine learning algorithms are best performed on data with multiple independent variables. The values computed for nitrogen relationship were more accurate than PK relationship values. The accuracy of data set I was less than data set II. A large data set would produce more accurate results for both data sets.
. M. Sillanpää, Micronutrients and the Nutrient Status of Soils: A Global Study, Food & Agriculture Org, 1982.
. M. Asaduzzaman and T. Asao, Improvement of Quality in Fruits and Vegetables Through Hydroponic Nutrient Management, BoD – Books on Demand, 2019.
. H. Mirzakhaninafchi, I. M. Mishra and A. M. Nafchi, “Study on Soil Nitrogen and Electrical Conductivity Relationship for Site-,” in 2017 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Washington, 2017.
. L. G. f. C. S. T. a. P. Analysis, J. Benton Jones, Jr., CRC Press, 2001.
. N. Tilley, “Fertilizer Numbers – What Is NPK,” gardeningknowhow.com, 4 April 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/garden-how-to/soil-fertilizers/fertilizer-numbers-npk.htm. [Accessed 3 October 2019].
. U. Hanif, “Pakistan’s agriculture productivity among the lowest in the world,” The Express Tribune, 24 January 2018. [Online]. Available: https://tribune.com.pk/story/1616347/2-pakistans-agriculture-productivity-among-lowest-world/. [Accessed 14 October 2019].
. World Bank, “Collection of Development Indicators,” World Bank, 2014.
. Dawn, “Misuse of fertilisers reduces yield,” Dawn, 4 February 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.dawn.com/news/1161320. [Accessed 14 October 2019].
. D. Li and Y. Chen, Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture: 5th IFIP TC 5, SIG 5.1 International Conference, CCTA 2011, Beijing, China, October 29-31, 2011, Proceedings, Part 1, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
. K. Abhang, S. Chaughule, P. Chavan and S. Ganjave, “Soil Analysis and Crop Fertility Prediction,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. V, no. 3, pp. 3106-3108, 2018.
. D. Vadalia, M. Vaity, K. Tawate and D. Kapse, “Real Time soil fertility analyzer and crop prediction,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), vol. IV, no. 3, pp. 1497-1499, 2017.
. I. Goodfellow, Y. Bengio and A. Courville, Deep Learning, MIT Press, 2016.
. M.S.Suchithra and M. L.Pai, “Improving the prediction accuracy of soil nutrient classification by optimizing extreme learning machine parameters,” 15 May 2019. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.inpa.2019.05.003. [Accessed 3 October 2019].
. Enterprise Technology Review, “AI and Automation in Smart Farming,” Enterprise Technology Review, 14 May 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.enterprisetechnologyreview.com/news/ai-and-automation-in-smart-farming-nwid-196.html. [Accessed 13 October 2019].
. Kellogg Biological Station, “Soil Test Lab Analyses - Agronomic,” 7 February 2019. [Online]. Available: https://lter.kbs.msu.edu/datatables/52. [Accessed 6 October 2019].
. Kellogg Biological Station, “Soil Inorganic Nitrogen, Moisture and Temperature,” 4 December 2018. [Online]. Available: https://lter.kbs.msu.edu/datatables/148. [Accessed 6 October 2019].
. D. A. Freedman, Statistical Models: Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
. A. K. M. E. Saleh, M. Arashi and B. M. G. Kibria, Theory of Ridge Regression Estimation with Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2019.
. scikit-learn, “Generalized Linear Models,” scikit-learn, 4 October 2019. [Online]. Available: https://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/linear_model.html#ordinary-least-squares. [Accessed 4 October 2019].
. P. D. Hoff, A First Course in Bayesian Statistical Methods, Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.
. S. L. Jackson, Statistics Plain and Simple, Cengage Learning, 2009.
Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Computer (IJC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to reject the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.